Title (srp)

Efikasnost zeolita i apatita u mobilnosti teških metala u zemljištima i biljkama

Author

Grubišić, Mirko S., 1970-

Contributor

Bošković-Rakočević, Ljiljana, 1967-
Đurić, Milena, 1959-
Stojanović, Mirjana.
Dugalić, Goran, 1961-
Paunović, Aleksandar, 1959-

Description (eng)

Knowledge of the mobility of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Zn and radionuclides U represents one of the goals of protection, regulation and rational use of agricultural soils from the aspect of production of safe food. The aim of the research thesis is the study of the efficiency of natural mineral materials based on zeolite and apatite from domestic deposits in the mobility of heavy metals and radionuclides in the soils of the different physicochemical characteristics (pseudogley and chernozem) using a test culture mustard (Sinapis alba L.) and sunflower (Hellianthus annuus L.). Affinity, efficiency, zeolite adsorption mechanisms and apatite adsorption precipitation were determined in a constant-pressure column system at 300 mg l-1 for different pH values (5.00, 7.00) of the basic contaminated solution (Pb, Cd, Zn, U) at time intervals 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 minutes. In all variants, significant changes in the pH of the filtrate occurred. The most significant changes in the pH of the filtrate, minimal fluctuations in the time interval, at pH = 5.00, recorded the basic solutions of Pb (7.69-7.87) and U (7.77-7.93) through the column with apatite and somewhat lower changes for Cd and Zn. Changes in the pH of the basic contaminated solutions, pH=5.00, were also recorded after leaking through the zeolite columns but with significantly lower intensity with the trend of changes U> Pb> Cd> Zn. The trend of changes between apatite and zeolite also occurred in the basic contaminated solution pH=7.00. Zeolite and apatite adsorption/precipitation processes successfully immobilized Pb at pH of the basic solution 5.00 and 7.00. In colonies, apatite better immobilized U, zeolite is better for immobilisation of Cd, while for Zn, they showed a very similar affinity. Zeolite and apatite are added in an amount of 20 g kg-1 soil to reduce the content of watersoluble and easily accessible forms of Pb, Cd and Zn in uncontaminated and contaminated soil. Contamination of pseudogley and chernozems with Pb and U negatively influenced the morpho-physiological characteristics of sunflower, while the influence of Cd and Zn was dependent on the soil type. The increased presence of Pb and U in chernozems had a negative impact on the mustard, Cd and U in pseudogley were influenced by stimulus, while the influence of other heavy metals and radionuclides on the root mass and above ground mass varies and depends on the type of soil. The availability of Pb and Cd plants is higher in pseudogley soil, mostly accumulating at the root, with a small translocation into the above-ground parts for Pb and good for Cd and greater affinity in the mustard. Zinc is very mobile in pseudogley soil, the content of Zn at the root is lower than the content in the above-ground parts and sunflower and mushrooms. Uranium mobility is higher in chernozem, with most of it remaining at the root of the plant. The use of zeolite, especially apatite, reduced the content of mobile forms of toxic metals and radionuclides in soil, availability to plants, as well as the content at the root and above ground mass of sunflower and mustard.

Description (srp)

Poznavanja mobilnosti teških metala Pb, Cd, Zn i radionuklida U predstvalja jedan od ciljeva zaštite, uređenja i racionalnog korišćenja poljoprivrednog zemljišta sa aspekta proizvodnje zadravstveno bezbedne hrane. Cilj istraživanja disertacije je proučavanje efikasnosti prirodnih mineralnih sirovina na bazi zeolita i apatita sa domaćih nalazišta u mobilnosti teških metala i radionuklida u zemljištima različitih fizičko- hemijskih karakteristika (pseudoglej i černozem) koristeći test kulture slačicu (Sinapis Alba L.) i suncokret (Hellianthus annuus L.). Afinitet, efikasnost, mehanizmi adsorpcije zeolita i precipitacije apatita utvrđeni su u sistemu kolona sa konstantnim pritiskom, pri različitim pH vrednostima (5.00, 7.00) osnovnog kontaminiranog rastvora (Pb, Cd, Zn, U) 300 mg l -1 u vremenskim intervalima 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 minuta. U svim varijantama došlo je do značajnih promena pH vrednosti filtrata. Najviše promene pH vrednosti filtrata, minimalna kolebanja u vremenskom intervalu, pri pH=5.00, zabeležili su osnovni rastvori Pb (7.69-7.87) i U (7.77-7.93) kroz kolonu sa apatitom i nešto nižim promenama za Cd i Zn. Promene pH vrednosti osnovnih kontaminiranih rastvora, pH =5.00, zabeležene su i nakon propuštanja kroz kolone sa zeolitom ali znatno manjeg intenziteta sa trendom promena U>Pb>Cd>Zn. Trend promena između apatita i zeolita nastupile su i kod osnovnog kontaminiranog rastvora pH =7.00. Zeolit i apatit procesima adsorpcije/precipitacije uspešno su imobilisali Pb, pri pH vrednosti osnovnog rastvora 5.00 i 7.00. U kolonama apatit je bolje imobilisao U, zeolit je bolji za imobilizaciju Cd, dok su za Zn pokazali veoma sličan afinitet. Zeolit i apatit dodati u količini od 20 g kg-1 zemljišta smanjuju sadržaj vodnorastvorljivih i lakopristupačnih oblika Pb, Cd i Zn u nekontaminiranom i kontaminiranom zemljištu. Kontaminacija pseudogleja i černozema sa Pb i U je negativno uticala na morfofiziološke osobine suncokreta, dok je uticaj za Cd i Zn zavisio od tipa zemljišta. Povećano prisustvo Pb i U na černozemu negativno je uticalo na slačicu, Cd i U u pseudogleju su uticali stimulativno, dok je uticaj ostalih teških metala i radionuklida na masu korena i nadzemnu masu različit i zavisi od tipa zemljišta. Dostupnost Pb i Cd biljkama je veća u pseudoglejnom zemljištu, najvećim delom se akumulira u korenu, sa malom translokacijom u nadzemne delove za Pb i dobrom za Cd i većim afinitetom kod slačice. Cink je veoma mobilan u pseudoglejnom zemljištu, sadržaj Zn u korenu je niži od sadržaja u nadzemnim delovima i kod suncokreta i slačice. Mobilnost urana je veća u černozemu, pri čemu najveći deo ostaje u korenu biljke. Upotrebom zeolita, posebno apatita smanjen je sadržaj mobilnih formi toksičnih metala i radionuklida u zemljištu, dostupnost biljkama, kao i sadržaj u korenu i nadzemnoj masi suncokreta i slačice.

Object languages

Serbian

Date

2017

Rights

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a
CC BY 2.0 AT - Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Austria License.

CC BY 2.0 AT

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/at/

Identifiers