Title (srp)

Glagolski sistem govora Tutina, Novog Pazara i Sjenice - oblici i upotrebe


Veljović, Bojana M., 1988-


Mladenović, Radivoje, 1950-
Miloradović, Sofija, 1963-
Kovačević, Miloš, 1953-
Bošnjaković, Žarko, 1954-

Description (eng)

In this work we analyze the verbal system of the speech of Tutin, Novi Pazar and Sjenica from the morphological and syntactic perspective. The detailed and complete description of the verbal forms which function in this idiom in the Serbian dialectology has not been given yet. Except for the study of Danilo Barjaktarević Sjenica-Novi Pazar speeches (Barjaktarević 1966), in which, besides the descriptions of the other linguistic levels, the main notes on the forms and principles of their usage are mentioned, there has not been a more important and ampler research done on the dialectal material of this speech. Our goal is, therefore, to offer a complete description of the verbal system, along with extracting the verbal types, determining the relation between the stem of verbs, identifying the inventory of the endings in some particular forms, to depict then the syntactic-semantic conditions of the usage of every individual unit, especially in their primary and secondary functions, and to thus analyze the effects which are caused on the narrative level when they appear together, while entering the network of complex relations. The material for this work consists of the dialectal matter from the territory of Tutin, Novi Pazar and Sjenica, gathered during an interview conducted on the informers who are autochthonous dialectal speakers. The topics for conversation were various, mostly quite familiar to the interlocutors: the conversation about what life used to be in comparison to what it is like now, about customs, beliefs, the holidays of the annual and life cycle, about the work on the field, and in the house, about the crafts and so on. All of that made it possible for the texts to be various as far as the structural aspects are concerned (narrative discourse, procedural texts, dialogues and so on), and in that way to satisfy the need for the even presence of all the forms and their functions, so as to select the sufficient number of confirmations which support the theoretical background. The goal of the morphological analysis is to examine the state present in the category of verbal stems and types, during which we determine the complex relations which primarily deal with the appearance of intertwining of the forms from this domain. In every type, there are verbs which preserve the state they have inherited, have one series of forms and do not show tendency to approach any other conjugational type. On the other hand, it appears that a number of verbs generate one type of their forms according to one verbal type and the others according to another one, whereas in the case of some verbs those instances of intertwining can be multiple and that is why the parallel series of verbal forms often act on the usage level. It has been determined that the presence of varieties can be caused by the factors of phonetic, morphemic and semantic nature, and at the heart of every change there is a striving of the popular speech towards constant change, which is the core feature of the idiom that possesses its own natural regulation. The transition of a verb from one verbal type to another points out the tendency which leads to the equating of the differences between some of the members of the system as well as towards the reduction of the declinational patterns, which is the consequence of linguistic economy. The appearance of varieties has been noted in all types, and the intertwining with the verbs of the third type has been most common, which shows the expansiveness of this conjugational pattern. The insight into the inventory of the morphological categories (verbal forms) and of the devices which participate in its creation (verbal endings) enables the acknowledgement of the state which deals with the (in)stability of the position of all of them. Special attention is dedicated to the forms which are missing in some of the Serbian speeches: „aoristˮ (aorist), „imperfekatˮ, „pluskvamperfekatˮ, the infinitive. By defining the inventory of the endings the status of the verbal form is determined in the system, especially if we bear in mind that the greater variety in the selection of the endings can imply its unstable position in the given speech. It has been shown that a reshaping of the inherited state is detected in the case of some forms, which is reflected in the elimination of the linguistic devices which perform the function of expressing the same grammatical information – in that way the existence of two endings in the same grammatical person is typically canceled by deriving it into one, and it is usually into the one which the majority of verbs have. The appearance of the breakthrough of the endings reserved for the creation of one form into the paradigm of another one in our material has not been noted often, which points out the conclusion that each of the fixed units has a stable position in the system and the clearly determined limits to the other forms. The cases which, nonetheless, confirm the existence of such a process clearly point out that the reasons are first to be searched for on the semantic level and then on the morphological and phonetic-phonological ones as well. What is of importance to the supervision of the state in the system is the influence of the meaning factors, bearing in mind that it is then a matter of the semantic approaching of two forms, and that is usually of the ones which perform the function of expressing similar contents. That is, for instance, the case with „aoristˮ and „imperfekatˮ, where the breakthrough of the endings of one form into the paradigm of another one indicates the weakening of the meaning difference between them, which also means the impairment of the position in the system, and, as a result, the possible beginning of the elimination process of one of the forms from the system. The goal of the analysis from the syntactic perspective is to give the most complete description possible regarding the usage value of every individual verbal form. The verbal forms are analyzed as independent units, during which the inventory of the syntactic-semantic qualities is determined, and then, bearing in mind that they always appear united in the communicative act, they are examined in the complex network of mutual relations. The insight into the material has shown that the choice of the forms as well as the question of which segment of the semantic potential will show itself as relevant in the actual speech act firstly depend on the type of the text. That is how the syntactic-semantic qualities of the forms are defined with regard to their usage in everyday communication, but also when they perform the function of shaping wider narrative structures. In the latter case, it has been shown that different types of texts also demand different organization of linguistic devices, and that is why the inventory and the syntactic-semantic qualities of the forms differ in the reports characterized by a neutral, emotionally unemployed narrative tone from those with the stressed evocativeness, emotionally intonated. Also, the inventory of the verbal forms which are at disposal when focusing on the narration about the effects which fall under the domain of the personal experience of the informer differ from the one in which the inexperienced actions are reported on and so on. Among the most significant characteristics of the researched spread we naturally include the complex system of the past tenses. The verbal forms which in these speeches report on the past actions, besides the units whose main function is temporal („perfekatˮ, „imperfekatˮ, „aoristˮ, „pluskvamperfekatˮ), also include the temporally transposable forms („prezentˮ, „potencijalˮ, „imperativˮ (the imperative)), and thus the verbal constructions with specialized function (шћаше + infinitive, било +infinitive, би + imperative). On the one hand, all the mentioned forms possess their own syntactic-semantic characteristics, but, on the other hand, the field of their usage in some segments coincides with some of the functions of the other forms, so the selection of one of them is determined by different factors. On the biggest part of the Serbian linguistic territory, the four-member system of the past tenses is usually simplified by the reduction to one, universal tense for the narration of the past events – „perfekatˮ. It has been shown that the speech of Tutin, Novi Pazar, and Sjenica falls under the category of the idioms in which this tendency has not particularly advanced. The good preservation of „perfekatˮ and „aoristˮ represents an important structural characteristic of the mentioned zone. Their place in the four-member system of the past tenses is stable, and on the usage level both tenses of these are characterized by a wide range of functions. As opposed to the other tenses which can recount the past actions, „aoristˮ and „imperfekatˮ (as forms with a clearly expressed semantic component of experience) are in total advance of them regarding the narration of the past effects from the domain of the speakerʼs experience. The analysis of the verbal forms is primarily grounded on the theory of V. Reichenbach which takes into account the criteria indicative : relative and referentiality : non-referentiality. This work also studies the occurrence of disintegration at the micro level. The presence of the linguistic features which indicate the inner differentiation has been confirmed, and it has been conditioned primarily by the territorial position of the analyzed speech. During the whole analysis we have also compared the state we found in the researched idiom to the situation which characterizes the nearby speeches. The contribution to the Serbian dialectology is reflected in the fact that this research gives a complete description of the verbal system of the researched area from a contemporary perspective, detecting thus the dominant developmental tendencies, that is, the paths of the possible evolutional stream in the future from a synchronous point of view. In the analysis we use the theoretical starting points of modern theories, which chiefly have not been widely applied in the analysis of dialectal matter.

Description (srp)

U radu se sa morfološkog i sintaksičkog stanovišta analizira glagolski sistem govora Tutina, Novog Pazara i Sjenice. Detaljan i potpun opis glagolskih oblika koji funkcionišu u ovome idiomu u srpskoj dijalektologiji do sada nije dat. Osim studije Danila Barjaktarevića Novopazarsko-sjenički govori (Barjaktarević 1966), u kojoj se, pored opisa ostalih jezičkih nivoa, navode i osnovne napomene o oblicima i principima njihove upotrebe, značajnijih i obimnijih istraživanja vršenih na dijalekatskom materijalu ovoga govora nije bilo. Naš cilj je, stoga, da damo potpuni opis glagolskog sistema, sa izdvajanjem glagolskih vrsta, utvrđivanjem odnosa osnova glagola, inventara nastavaka u pojedinim oblicima, potom da opišemo sintaksičko-semantičke uslove upotrebe svake jedinice pojedinačno, i to u njihovim osnovnim i sekundarnim službama, te analiziramo efekte koji se na narativnom planu proizvode onda kada se one javljaju združeno, ulazeći u mrežu složenih relacija. Materijal za rad čini dijalekatska građa sa terena Tutina, Novog Pazara i Sjenice, prikupljena putem intervjua sa informatorima koji su autohtoni dijalekatski govornici. Teme za razgovor bile su različite, uglavnom bliske sagovornicima: razgovori o životu nekada u poređenju sa onime kako je sada, običajima, verovanjima, praznicima godišnjeg i životnog ciklusa, o radovima na polju, u kući, o zanatima i sl. Sve to omogućilo je da tekstovi sa strukturne strane budu raznoliki (narativni diskurs, proceduralni tekstovi, dijalozi i sl.), te tako zadovolje potrebu za ravnomernom zastupljenošću svih oblika i njihovih funkcija, kako bi se selektovao dovoljan broj potvrda kojima se potkrepljuju teorijska stanovišta. Cilj morfološke analize jeste ispitivanje stanja prisutnog u kategoriji glagolskih osnova i vrsta, pri čemu se utvrđuju složeni odnosi koji se prevashodno tiču pojave ukrštanja oblika u ovom domenu. U svakoj od vrsta izdvajaju se glagoli koji čuvaju nasleđeno stanje, imaju jedan niz oblika i ne pokazuju tendenciju ka približavanju nekom drugom konjugacijskom tipu. S druge strane, pokazalo se da nemali broj glagola jedne svoje oblike stvara po jednoj a neke po drugoj glagolskoj vrsti, a kod pojedinih takva ukrštanja mogu biti i višestruka, te često na upotrebnom planu figuriraju paralelni nizovi glagolskih oblika. Utvrđeno je da prisustvo varijantnosti može biti uzrokovano faktorima fonetske, morfološke ili semantičke prirode, a u podlozi svake od promena stoji težnja narodnog govora ka neprestanom menjanju, koja je suštinska odlika idioma koji poseduju prirodnu samoregulativu. Prelazak glagola iz jedne u drugu glagolsku vrstu ukazuje na tendenciju koja vodi ka izjednačavanju razlika među pojedinim članovima sistema, a dalje i ka smanjenju deklinacionih obrazaca, što je posledica jezičke ekonomije. Pojava varijantnosti beležena je u svim vrstama, a najzastupljenije je ukrštanje sa glagolima III vrste, što ukazuje na ekspanzivnost ovog konjugacionog obrasca. Uvid u inventar morfoloških kategorija (glagolski oblici) i sredstava koja u njihovom građenju učestvuju (glagolski nastavci) omogućava sagledanje stanja koje se tiče (ne)stabilnosti pozicije svakog od njih. Posebna pažnja posvećuje se oblicima koji u pojedinim srpskim govorima izostaju: aorist, imperfekat, pluskvamperfekat, infinitiv. Definisanjem inventara nastavaka određuje se status glagolskog oblika u sistemu, posebno ako se ima u vidu da znatnija varijantnost u izboru nastavaka može značiti njegovu nestabilnu poziciju u datom govoru. Pokazalo se da se kod pojedinih oblika uočava preoblikovanje nasleđenog stanja koje se ogleda u eliminaciji jezičkih sredstava sa službom iskazivanja iste gramatičke informacije – postojanje dvaju nastavaka u istom gramatičkom licu ukida se najčešće svođenjem na jedan, i to obično onaj koji ima najveći broj glagola. Pojava prodora nastavaka rezervisanih za građenje jednog oblika u paradigmu drugog u našem materijalu nije često beležena, što upućuje na zaključak da svaka od fiksiranih jedinica ima stabilno mesto u sistemu i jasno utvrđene granice prema drugim oblicima. Slučajevi koji postojanje takvog procesa ipak potvrđuju jasno ukazuju na to da uzroke treba tražiti prevashodno na semantičkom, a potom i na morfološkom i fonetsko-fonološkom planu. Od značaja za praćenje stanja u sistemu jeste uticaj značenjskih faktora, imajući u vidu da je tada posredi semantičko približavanje dvaju oblika, i to najčešće onih koji imaju funkciju kazivanja sličnih sadržaja. To je, na primer, slučaj sa aoristom i imperfektom, gde je prodor nastavaka jednog oblika u paradigmu drugog indikator slabljenja značenjske razlike među njima, a to znači i narušene sistemske pozicije, te eventualnog začetka procesa eliminacije jedne od formi iz sistema. Cilj analize sa stanovišta sintakse jeste da se da što potpuniji opis upotrebne vrednosti svakog od pojedinačnih glagolskih oblika. Glagolski oblici analiziraju se kao samostalne jedinice, pri čemu se utvrđuje inventar sintaksičko-semantičkih odlika, a potom se, imajući u vidu da se u komunikativnom činu uvek javljaju udruženi, sagledaju i u složenoj mreži međusobnih odnosa. Uvid u materijal pokazao je da odabir oblika, ali i to koji će se segment semantičkog potencijala pokazati kao relevantan u konkretnom govornom aktu u prvom redu zavisi od tipa teksta. Tako se sintaksičko-semantička svojstva oblika definišu s obzirom na njihovu upotrebu u svakodnevnoj komunikaciji, ali i onda kada nastupaju u službi oblikovanja širih narativnih struktura. U ovom drugom slučaju pokazalo se da različiti tipovi tekstova zahtevaju i različitu organizaciju jezičkih sredstava, te se tako inventar i sintaksičko-semantičke osobine oblika razlikuju u saopštenjima koja se odlikuju neutralnim, emotivno neangažovanim tonom pripovedanja od onih sa naglašenom evokativnošću, emotivno intoniranima. Takođe, inventar glagolskih formi koje su na raspolaganju onda kada je posredi pripovedanje o dejstvima koja spadaju u domen ličnog iskustva informatora razlikuje se od onoga gde se saopštavaju nedoživljene radnje i sl. Među najznačajnije karakteristike ispitivanog areala svakako ubrajamo složeni sistem preteritalnih vremena. U glagolske oblike kojima se u ovim govorima saopštavaju prošle radnje, osim jedinica kojima je osnovna služba temporalna (perfekat, imperfekat, aorist, pluskvamperfekat), uvršćuju se i vremenski transponovani oblici (prezent, potencijal, imperativ), te glagolske konstrukcije sa specijalizovanom funkcijom (šćaše + infinitiv, bilo + infinitiv, bi + imperativ). Svi navedeni oblici s jedne strane poseduju sopstvene sintaksičko-semantičke karakteristike, ali se, s druge strane, u nekim segmentima polje njihove upotrebe poklapa sa nekom od službi ostalih oblika, te je izbor jednog od njih uslovljen različitim faktorima. U većem delu srpske jezičke teritorije četvoročlani sistem preterita uprošćava se svođenjem uglavnom na jedno, univerzalno vreme za kazivanje prošlih radnji – perfekat. Pokazalo se da govor Tutina, Novog Pazara i Sjenice spada u red idioma u kojima ova tendencija nije u većoj meri uznapredovala. Dobro čuvanje imperfekta i aorista predstavlja bitnu strukturnu karakteristiku pomenute zone. Njihovo mesto u četvoročlanom sistemu prošlih vremena stabilno je, a na planu upotrebe oba vremena odlikuju se širokim dijapazonom funkcija. U odnosu na druga vremena kojima se mogu kazivati prošle radnje, aorist i imperfekat (kao oblici sa jasno izraženom semantičkom komponentom doživljenosti) imaju potpunu prednost u pripovedanju prošlih dejstava iz domena doživljaja govornog lica. Analiza glagolskih oblika utemeljena je najvećim delom na teoriji V. Rajhenbaha, koja u obzir uzima kriterijume indikativ : relativ i referencijalnost : nereferencijalnost. U radu se ispituje i pojava mikroraslojenosti. Prisustvo jezičkih osobina koje upućuju na unutrašnju diferenciranost potvrđeno je, a uslovljeno je u najvećoj meri teritorijalnim položajem analiziranog govora. Tokom čitave analize vršeno je i poređenje stanja zatečenog u ispitivanom idiomu sa situacijom koja karakteriše okolne govore. Doprinos srpskoj dijalektologiji ogleda se u tome što se ovim istraživanjem daje potpuni opis glagolskog sistema ispitivanog područja sa savremenog stanovišta, te uočavaju dominantne razvojne tendencije, odnosno putevi eventualnog budućeg evolutivnog toka sa stanovišta sinhrone perspektive. U analizi se koriste teorijska polazišta modernih teorija, koje uglavnom nisu nalazile širu primenu u analizi dijalekatske građe.

Description (srp)

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