Title (srp)

Folklorni obrasci u srpskoj književnosti romantizma, avangarde i modernizma


Matić, Aleksandra, 1990-, 22346087


Nikolić, Časlav, 1983-, 13830759
Bošković, Dragan, 1970-, 13421415
Garonja-Radovanac, Slavica, 1957-, 2793575
Jerkov, Aleksandar, 1960-, 12546151

Description (eng)

The subject of dissertation Folkloric patterns in Serbian literature of Romanticism, Avant-Garde, Modernism is folkloric patterns under which notions of traditional art, sense,knowledge, practice incorporated into written literature of romanticism, avant-garde,modernism as these three periods illustrate, with their poetic peculiarities, the processes of affirmation of different aspects of folklore in the circumstances of modernity. I am directing research towards instances found in poetics of a period and author, which are concerning folklore, new interpretations of folkloric tradition and re-coding of the folkloric source material. The goal of my work is to identify and interpret processes of re-codifying starting with myth, ritual, paroemia, heading towards ideological, socio-cultural, religious, psychological, philosophical codifying, found in the dialogue of "literary", "modern" culture and various aspects of folklore, as expressions of a wider traditional culture, as well as to cite the potential of folkloric patterns to enable a permanent presence of an infinite, vivacious construct of meanings not only in Serbian literature of 19th and 20th century but in future poetics, too. To surpass stereotypical discourse and conventional images of the past, folklore, tradition, heritage, I am founding my research on interdisciplinary discourse while answering vital questions in regards to representation, interpretation, and assessment of folkloric patterns. Hence, it's necessary, by relying on achievements in ethnological and cultural researches, to establish a methodological framework intended for understanding the folkloric source material. As the transforming process inside literary creation inevitably includes folkloric source material, it directs the choice of methodological practices as well, i.e. conducting two key methods called identification and interpretation, founded by folklorist Alan Dundes. The first step requires an analytic approach with researching and indicating existent folklore subject, yet the second step is more significant in achieving the goal of the research which is underling the difference from the present subject, i.e. to highlight re-contextualization and "context inflow" of folklore patterns via interpretation. For that purpose literary corpus of Serbian writers of romanticism, avant-garde, modernism has been analyzed. The corpus of my work consists of poetic, prose, dramatic body of work by following authors: Petar II Petrović Njegoš, Branko Radičević, Đura Jakšić, Jovan Jovanović Zmaj, Đorđe Marković Koder, Laza Kostić, Stanislav Vinaver, Momčilo Nastasijević, Rastko Petrović, Miloš Crnjanski, Vasko Popa, Miodrag Pavlović, Branko Miljković, Ljubomir Simović, Ivo Andrić, Miodrag Bulatović, Borislav Mihajlović Mihiz. 9 Considering the fact that new theory points out conditioning of meaning by conventional and contextual facts, as well as the inability to deplete contextual possibilities and the effects of denotations, a request is made firstly, for a revision of a relation which was, up to this moment, considered mostly in the discussion frames folk/natural − artistic/artificial, anonymous/collective − individual, oral − written, secondly, to direct the attention towards the entirety of the problem, i.e. how are folkloric patterns which are part of a traditional, oral culture, constricted by written text, exposed to meaning modification through new interpretations. Interpretative/constitutive techniques through which are creating the meaning of folkloric patterns are in a certain poetic, socio-cultural, political environment, which is also the subject of analysis. Shedding light onto "unspoken places" of culture, written into folkloric patterns is based on the grounds of post-structuralists' theoretical presumptions, which delivers a hypothesis that folkloric patterns operate in a textual network as a totality of their present actualization and both past and future "textual traces" which are present in the concretization as an "extra" in the relation with what is known and what is said. In that manner, consideration of actual, literary folkloric patterns, where "unconscious" of traditional culture is recognized, is taken as an elementary methodological benchmark. Chapter Folkloric patterns in Serbian Romanticism demonstrates how ideas of the fellowship, folk spirit, voices of the nation, unrefined folkloric imagination, supernatural, which is in touch with the mythical, mystical, magical experience of the world, form literature of romanticism. Serbian romanticism, as a specific artistic movement, developing correlatively with the process of state-making and strengthening of national identity, left its marks on the creation of art, conceiving the process of institutionalization of folklore and its incorporation into literary texts through at-the-time-current ideological and socio-cultural processes. Romanticism is the moment of affirmation and stabilization of a cultural pattern which will from then on be deprecated and re-affirmed, still all-present in the formation of the literary tradition. Chapter Folkloric patterns in Serbian Avant-garde confirms that folklore can be a subversive element in undermining one reality and, constituting another on the grounds of irrational and surreal, liberating logic and moral clamps. It's possible to accomplish structural, transcendental, narrative, genre, and any other type of undermining within the avant-garde with the same means considered to be traditional, canon, dogmatic, which contain an opposite meaning or to which an opposite meaning can be attributed. Besides that, with its tradition of neo-mythology and its inclination towards creating its own myth, which actively manifests in paradigm of death as a renewal and new birth, i.e. the idea of cycle, cosmos, eschatological 10 myth, it approaches the folkloric time, as well as with correlating of different arts, music, words, rhythm, through renewal of ritual syncretism. Chapter Folkloric patterns in Serbian Modernism indicates that the literary world of modernism undertook from the pre-literate world the all-encompassing symbolic potential for revision of marginalized characters, existential categories, modern subject, reflecting and at the same time use it in the assessment of existing values, contemporary modernistic projects, and perspectives. Folkloric sources in modernism are nostalgic moral, mystic, spiritual atonement for the lack of wholeness, authenticity, as well as the reconciliation of mythical and historical perspective in the experience of the modern subject, and in overall in the foundation of the modern project. Dissertation Folkloric patterns in Serbian literature of Romanticism, Avant-Garde, Modernism ought to interpret, analyze, prove the following results of the research: to identify folkloric patterns which appear in the periods of romanticism, avant-garde, modernism, and to determine the laws by which certain aspects of folklore actualize in a given moment; to interpret identified folkloric patterns by applying contemporary theory and to determine which meanings are attributed in compliance with poetic characteristics of the period; to determine in which degree the abundance of folklore is perceived through the transformational diversity of the written material; to signify that inscription of folkloric patterns isn't just a linear sequence in which the ideas of romanticism continues in modern literature, yet that their transformation, even in the most destructive and anti-traditionalistic creative actions, is achieved in a new and provocative manner; to deduce a model for recognizing folkloric patterns and their transformations in the works of other authors that are not in the corpus.

Description (srp)

Predmet istraživanja disertacije Folklorni obrasci u srpskoj književnosti romantizma, avangarde i modernizma jesu folklorni obrasci, pod kojima se obuhvata tradicionalna umetnost, mišljenje, znanje i praksa, inkorporirani u pisanu književnost srpskog romantizma, avangarde i modernizma, kao tri epohe koje svojim poetičkim osobenostima ilustruju procese afirmacije različitih aspekata folklora u okolnostima moderniteta. Istraživanje se usmerava i ka valencama koje se u poetici epohe i autora otvaraju ka folkloru, ka novim tumačenjima folklorne tradicije i prekodiranja folklorne građe. Cilj rada je da se u dijalogu „literarne”, „moderne” kulture sa različitim aspektima folklora, kao izrazima šire tradicijske kulture, identifikuju i protumače procesi prekodiranja od mitskog, obrednog, paremijskog ka ideološkom, sociokulturnom, religioznom, istorijskom, psihološkom, filozofskom kodifikovanju, ali i da se predoči potencijal folklornih obrazaca da obezbede permanentno prisustvo u srpskoj književnosti 19. i 20. veka i budućim poetikama, kao beskonačno, živo proizvođenje značenja. Kako bi se izašlo izvan stereotipnog diskursa i uopštenih slika prošlosti, folklora, tradicije i nasleđa, istraživanje se zasniva na interdisciplinarnom diskursu pri odgovaranju na vitalna pitanja koja se odnose na zastupljenost, tumačenje i ocenjivanje folklornih obrazaca. Otuda je neophodno, dostignućima u etnološkim i kulturološkim istraživanjima, uspostaviti metodološki okvir za razumevanje folklorne građe. Kako proces transformacije neizbežno zahvata folklornu građu unutar literarne tvorevine, on usmerava i izbor metodoloških postupaka, odnosno sprovođenje dva ključna postupka koje je uspostavio folklorista Alan Dandes: identifikacija i tumačenje. Prvi zadatak zahteva analitički pristup u proučavanju, i ukazivanje na postojeći folklorni predmet, ali je drugi korak značajniji za ostvarivanje cilja istraživanja, a to je – da se pokaže razlika u odnosu na već postojeći predmet, odnosno da se kroz tumačenje ukaže na rekontekstualizaciju i „priliv značenja” folklornih obrazaca. U tu svrhu analizirana su dela srpskih pisaca romantizma, avangarde i modernizma. Kao korpus uzet je poetski, prozni, dramski opus sledećih autora: Petar II Petrović Njegoš, Branko Radičević, Đura Jakšić, Jovan Jovanović Zmaj, Đorđe Marković Koder, Laza Kostić, Stanislav Vinaver, Momčilo Nastasijević, Rastko Petrović, Miloš 6 Crnjanski, Vasko Popa, Miodrag Pavlović, Branko Miljković, Ljubomir Simović, Ivo Andrić, Miodrag Bulatović, Borislav Mihajlović Mihiz. S obzirom na to da je u novoj teorijskoj misli ukazano na uslovljenost značenja konvencionalnim i kontekstualnim činiocima, kao i usled nemogućnosti iscrpljivanja kontekstualnih mogućnosti i učinaka označavanja, postavlja se zahtev da se preispita odnos koji je dosad razmatran u problemskom okviru narodno/prirodno – umetničko/veštačko, anonimno/kolektivno – individualno, usmeno – pisano, te da se pažnja usmeri na celinu problema, tj. kako se folklorni obrasci, koji jesu deo jedne tradicionalne, usmene kulture, fiksirani pisanim tekstom, izlažu izmeni smisla kroz nova tumačenja. Interpretativne/konstitutivne tehnike kroz koje se tvori smisao folklornih obrazaca odvijaju se u određenom poetičkom, društveno-kulturnom, političkom okruženju, koje se takođe analizira u radu. Ta „neizrečena mesta” kulture, upisana u folklorne obrasce, osvetljavaju se na temelju poststrukturalističkih teorijskih pretpostavki, što proizvodi i pretpostavku da folklorni obrasci deluju u mreži tekstualnosti kao sveukupnost svoje konkretne realizacije i prethodnih i budućih „tekstualnih tragova” koji su kao „višak”, u odnosu na ono što se zna i ono što je rečeno, prisutni u toj konkretizaciji. Tako se kao osnovno metodološko polazište uzima razmatranje konkretnih folklornih obrazaca u literarnim tekstovima unutar kojih se prepoznaje i „nesvesno” tradicionalne kulture. Poglavlje Folklorni obrasci u srpskom romantizmu pokazuje na koji način ideje o kolektivu, narodnom duhu, glasovima naroda, neobrađenoj folklornoj imaginaciji, natprirodnom, koje je u dodiru sa mitskim, mističkim, magijskim doživljajem sveta oblikuje književnost romantizma. Srpski romantizam, kao specifičan umetnički pokret, izrasta paralelno sa procesom održavotvorenja i jačanja nacionalnog identiteta, ostavlja svoje tragove unutar umetničkog stvaralaštva, te se i sam proces institucionalizacije folklora i njegovo inkorporiranje u literarne tekstove osmišljava kroz prateće ideološke i sociokulturne procese. Romantizam jeste trenutak afirmacije i stabilizovanja jednog kulturnog obrasca koji će nadalje biti osporavan i potvrđivan, ali sveprisutan u formiranju literarne tradicije. Poglavlje Folklorni obrasci u srpskoj avangardi potvrđuje da se folklor može posmatrati kao subverzivni element u podrivanju jedne stvarnosti i konstituisanju druge na temeljima iracionalnog, nadstvarnog, u oslobađanju logičkih i moralnih stega. Strukturno, transcendentno, narativno, žanrovsko i svako drugo podrivanje unutar avangarde mogućno je ostvariti upravo sredstvima koja se smatraju 7 tradicionalnim, kanonskim, dogmatskim, a zapravo sadrže ili im se može pridodati suprotno značenje. Osim toga, sa svojom tradicijom neomitologizma i sklonosti ka stvaranju sopstvenog mita, koji se aktivno manifestuje kroz paradigmu smrti kao obnove i novog rađanja, tj. ideju ciklizacije, kosmizacije i eshatološkog mita, približava se folklornom vremenu, jednako kao i kroz približavanje različitih umetnosti, muzike, reči, ritma, kroz obnavljanje obrednog sinkretizma. Poglavlje Folklorni obrasci u srpskom modernizmu nastoji da ukaže da je literarni svet modernizma iz pre-pismenog sveta preuzeo sveobuhvatni simbolički potencijal u preispitivanju marginalizovanih identiteta, egzistencijalnih kategorija i modernog subjekta, odražavajući, u procenjivanju postojećih vrednosti, savremene modernističke projekte i perspektive. Folklorni izvori u modernizmu posmatraju se kao nostalgična moralna, mistična i duhovna naknada za nedostatak celovitosti i autentičnosti i pomirenje mitske i istorijske perspektive u iskustvu modernog subjekta i, uopšte, u osnovi modernog projekta. Disertacija Folklorni obrasci u srpskoj književnosti romantizma, avangarde i modernizma treba da protumači, obrazloži i dokaže sledeće rezultate istraživanja: da se identifikuju folklorni obrasci koji se javljaju u epohi romantizma, avangarde i modernizma i da se utvrde zakonitosti po kojima se određeni aspekti folklora aktuelizuju u datom trenutku; da se identifikovani folklorni obrasci protumače sa savremenih teorijskih pozicija i da se utvrdi koja se značenja pripisuju u skladu sa poetičkim osobenostima epohe; da se utvrdi u kojoj meri se bogatstvo folklora očituje upravo u raznolikosti obrade građe u pisanoj književnosti; da se ukaže da upisivanje folklornih obrazaca ne podrazumeva samo linearni niz kojim se nastavljaju ideje romantizma u modernoj književnosti, već da se upravo njihova obrada, čak i u najdestruktivnijim i antitradicionalističkim stvaralačkim postupcima ostvaruje na nov i provokativan način; da se utvrdi model za prepoznavanje folklornih obrazaca i njihovih obrada i u delima drugih autora koji nisu obuhvaćeni korpusom.

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